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    减税和简化税收增值税减税:谁减税?作者:2019年4月1日,范子英在中国正式启动新一轮增值税减征政策。这一轮减税政策的核心是降低税率。基准税率16%下调至13%,降幅高达19%(3/16)。与2018年前17%的基准税率相比,近两年下降了24%。增值税是我国最大的税种,占税收总额的40%。在短短两年内,中国已将增值税税率降低了近四分之一。如此大幅度降低税率,将导致宏观层面的政府收入减少,微观层面的经济实体税收负担减少。中国是一个以间接税为主的国家,间接税占总税收的70%。与发达国家的直接税体制不同,间接税的主要特点是其转移功能。无论间接税是附加价格税(如增值税)还是在价格税(如消费税)中,制造商都容易将税负嵌入价格中,通过提高价格将税负转移到下一个家庭。因此,减税的好处也必须惠及许多群体,而且,任何减税不仅可以带来直接的负担减轻,而且还可以带来收入分配的变化。相应的增值税减免在很大程度上改善了收入分配。从4月1日起,发改委开始降低石油、电力和天然气的价格。其中,92汽油价格每升下降0.18元,0柴油价格每升下降0.17元。电力和天然气的价格也会在一定程度上降低。然而,由于地区间输气和输气的差异,这两种方式的降价在全国范围内是不可能统一的。一步一步地。除了这些由政府定价的产品外,商人自己定价的商品也开始降价。对于苹果产品,13英寸MacBook Pro的价格从10200元降至9936元,即264元,与增值税税率从16%降至13%完全相同(税率为16%时不含8793*1.17的税率,税率为13%时不含8793*1.13的税率)。如果你看得更仔细一点,你还可以在商品价格下面看到一行注释:“包括增值税和其他法定税费:**”。此外,价格下降在汽车行业也很明显,大多数汽车都降低了销售价格。这说明了两个问题。首先,增值税本质上是一种消费税。虽然中国的增值税是对企业征收的,但企业只代表其他企业缴纳。企业在各生产环节向税务局缴纳的增值税,在销售商品时已向下一个家庭预收。中间环节实行价税分离,最终销售环节实行价税一体化。一方面,纳税人是最终消费者。同时,2009年增值税转型完成后,我国现阶段实行消费型增值税,其税基为国民收入核算中的消费。因此,在税收理论上,增值税有一个基本结论:增值税不是企业的税负,不计入企业利润表,不影响企业的利润。当然,这只是一个理想化的假设。现实中有很多局限性,我稍后会详细说明。正是因为增值税相当于消费税,增值税的减免将直接降低商品价格,惠及消费者。这涉及到我们要讨论的第二个问题:哪些产品更便宜?制造业基准税率由16%下调至13%。商品价格的最佳下调幅度应相当于增值税的下调幅度,约为2.6%。(减税后新旧价格之比除以原税率:113/116)。在实际经济活动中,并不是所有的制成品都会减少2.6%,有的甚至不会减少。影响商品降价的最重要因素是同类商品的竞争程度和商品之间的替代。这就是电子商品和汽车降价幅度相同的原因。其他必需品可以在一定程度上降低,但很难完全降价2.6%。但是,只要消费品价格下降,对低收入群体就更有利。

jian shui he jian hua shui shou zeng zhi shui jian shui: shui jian shui? zuo zhe: 2019 nian 4 yue 1 ri, fan zi ying zai zhong guo zheng shi qi dong xin yi lun zeng zhi shui jian zheng zheng ce. zhe yi lun jian shui zheng ce de he xin shi jiang di shui lv. ji zhun shui lv 16 xia diao zhi 13, jiang fu gao da 19 3 16. yu 2018 nian qian 17 de ji zhun shui lv xiang bi, jin liang nian xia jiang le 24. zeng zhi shui shi wo guo zui da de shui zhong, zhan shui shou zong e de 40. zai duan duan liang nian nei, zhong guo yi jiang zeng zhi shui shui lv jiang di le jin si fen zhi yi. ru ci da fu du jiang di shui lv, jiang dao zhi hong guan ceng mian di zheng fu shou ru jian shao, wei guan ceng mian di jing ji shi ti shui shou fu dan jian shao. zhong guo shi yi ge yi jian jie shui wei zhu de guo jia, jian jie shui zhan zong shui shou de 70. yu fa da guo jia de zhi jie shui ti zhi bu tong, jian jie shui de zhu yao te dian shi qi zhuan yi gong neng. wu lun jian jie shui shi fu jia jia ge shui ru zeng zhi shui hai shi zai jia ge shui ru xiao fei shui zhong, zhi zao shang du rong yi jiang shui fu qian ru jia ge zhong, tong guo ti gao jia ge jiang shui fu zhuan yi dao xia yi ge jia ting. yin ci, jian shui de hao chu ye bi xu hui ji xu duo qun ti, er qie, ren he jian shui bu jin ke yi dai lai zhi jie de fu dan jian qing, er qie hai ke yi dai lai shou ru fen pei de bian hua. xiang ying de zeng zhi shui jian mian zai hen da cheng du shang gai shan le shou ru fen pei. cong 4 yue 1 ri qi, fa gai wei kai shi jiang di shi you dian li he tian ran qi de jia ge. qi zhong, 92 qi you jia ge mei sheng xia jiang 0. 18 yuan, chai you jia ge mei sheng xia jiang 0. 17 yuan. dian li he tian ran qi de jia ge ye hui zai yi ding cheng du shang jiang di. ran er, you yu di qu jian shu qi he shu qi de cha yi, zhe liang zhong fang shi de jiang jia zai quan guo fan wei nei shi bu ke neng tong yi de. yi bu yi bu di. chu le zhei xie you zheng fu ding jia de chan pin wai, shang ren zi ji ding jia de shang pin ye kai shi jiang jia. dui yu ping guo chan pin, 13 ying cun MacBook Pro de jia ge cong 10200 yuan jiang zhi 9936 yuan, ji 264 yuan, yu zeng zhi shui shui lv cong 16 jiang zhi 13 wan quan xiang tong shui lv wei 16 shi bu han 8793 1. 17 de shui lv, shui lv wei 13 shi bu han 8793 1. 13 de shui lv. ru guo ni kan de geng zi xi yi dian, ni hai ke yi zai shang pin jia ge xia mian kan dao yi xing zhu shi:" bao kuo zeng zhi shui he qi ta fa ding shui fei:". ci wai, jia ge xia jiang zai qi che hang ye ye hen ming xian, da duo shu qi che dou jiang di le xiao shou jia ge. zhe shuo ming liao liang ge wen ti. shou xian, zeng zhi shui ben zhi shang shi yi zhong xiao fei shui. sui ran zhong guo de zeng zhi shui shi dui qi ye zheng shou de, dan qi ye zhi dai biao qi ta qi ye jiao na. qi ye zai ge sheng chan huan jie xiang shui wu ju jiao na de zeng zhi shui, zai xiao shou shang pin shi yi xiang xia yi ge jia ting yu shou. zhong jian huan jie shi xing jia shui fen li, zui zhong xiao shou huan jie shi xing jia shui yi ti hua. yi fang mian, na shui ren shi zui zhong xiao fei zhe. tong shi, 2009 nian zeng zhi shui zhuan xing wan cheng hou, wo guo xian jie duan shi xing xiao fei xing zeng zhi shui, qi shui ji wei guo min shou ru he suan zhong de xiao fei. yin ci, zai shui shou li lun shang, zeng zhi shui you yi ge ji ben jie lun: zeng zhi shui bu shi qi ye de shui fu, bu ji ru qi ye li run biao, bu ying xiang qi ye de li run. dang ran, zhe zhi shi yi ge li xiang hua de jia she. xian shi zhong you hen duo ju xian xing, wo shao hou hui xiang xi shuo ming. zheng shi yin wei zeng zhi shui xiang dang yu xiao fei shui, zeng zhi shui de jian mian jiang zhi jie jiang di shang pin jia ge, hui ji xiao fei zhe. zhe she ji dao wo men yao tao lun de di er ge wen ti: nei xie chan pin geng pian yi? zhi zao ye ji zhun shui lv you 16 xia diao zhi 13. shang pin jia ge de zui jia xia tiao fu du ying xiang dang yu zeng zhi shui de xia tiao fu du, yue wei 2. 6. jian shui hou xin jiu jia ge zhi bi chu yi yuan shui lv: 113 116. zai shi ji jing ji huo dong zhong, bing bu shi suo you de zhi cheng pin dou hui jian shao 2. 6, you de shen zhi bu hui jian shao. ying xiang shang pin jiang jia de zui zhong yao yin su shi tong lei shang pin de jing zheng cheng du he shang pin zhi jian de ti dai. zhe jiu shi dian zi shang pin he qi che jiang jia fu du xiang tong de yuan yin. qi ta bi xu pin ke yi zai yi ding cheng du shang jiang di, dan hen nan wan quan jiang jia 2. 6. dan shi, zhi yao xiao fei pin jia ge xia jiang, dui di shou ru qun ti jiu geng you li.

    

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